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  • Determine and Analyze the Concentration of Chloride in Naphtha - Hanna Instruments Slovenija
    and natural ingredients used in a shampoo dictate the pH of that particular product The pH of a shampoo will alter the natural pH of skin and hair which ideally falls between pH 3 and 5 and pH 4 and 5 respectively thereby affecting their physical and chemical makeup Read more Determine and Analyze the Concentration of Chloride in Naphtha Twitter Share on Tumblr Published 10 July 2015 If you are oil and natural gas supplier and are looking to determine the concentration of chloride in naphtha that s the article where you will find all of the relevant information Naphtha and its structure Naphtha consists of the liquid hydrocarbon mixtures and is a major component of gasoline and other fuel types It is primarily produced from the distillation of crude oil and it can also be produced from coal tar and extracted from wood Naphtha is often used as a solvent for petrochemical feedstocks as well as for the production of natural gas Chlorides are frequently occurring contaminants in naphtha and crude oil often exceeding concentrations of 3 ppm mg L While some chlorides may be naturally found in crude oil they can also be introduced during cleaning processes The process of hydrotreatment Chlorides can be present as organic chlorides organic compounds with a carbon chloride bond or undesaltable chlorides which are organic compounds that cannot be removed during a salt separation process High chloride levels are often reported in refining equipment and are undesirable as they can cause scaling and ultimately damage to the equipment During the oil refining process sulfur must be removed to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions as the gas has harmful effects on humans and the environment The process to remove sulfur along with nitrogen oxygen and trace metals is called hydrotreatment How to minimize

    Original URL path: http://www.hannaservice.si/en/hanna-blog/347-determine-and-analyze-the-concentration-of-chloride-in-naphtha (2016-04-28)
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  • New edgeblu – Bluetooth® Smart pH Electrode and Meter - Hanna Instruments Slovenija
    Share on Tumblr Published 18 December 2015 Shampoo is a hair care product used for removal of dirt dandruff skin particles oils and other contaminated particles As the scientists behind hair care progressed manufacturers synthesized chemical additives for use in shampoo as fragrance foaming agents and colored dyes Shampoo is now created and structured towards various hair types as well as to achieve a certain end result such as the reduction of dandruff or greasy hair Both the synthetic and natural ingredients used in a shampoo dictate the pH of that particular product The pH of a shampoo will alter the natural pH of skin and hair which ideally falls between pH 3 and 5 and pH 4 and 5 respectively thereby affecting their physical and chemical makeup Read more New edgeblu Bluetooth Smart pH Electrode and Meter Twitter Share on Tumblr Published 09 July 2015 Free yourself from wires when performing pH measurements Hanna Instruments is proud to introduce edgeblu a pH meter that uses electrodes with Bluetooth Smart technology Bluetooth 4 0 that connect wirelessly to edgeblu or a compatible iPad running the Hanna Lab App edgeblu The edgeblu is thin and lightweight measuring just 0 5 thick and weighing less than 9 ounces edgeblu has a 5 5 LCD with an incredibly wide viewing angle and a sensitive capacitive touch keypad The versatile design of edgeblu makes it equally at home in your hand on a lab bench or mounted on a wall edgeblu is simple to configure calibrate measure log and transfer data to a computer or a USB drive This meter features Hanna s exclusive CAL CheckTM to warn if the HALO pH electrode being used is not clean or if your buffers are contaminated during calibration An indicator is also displayed after calibration showing

    Original URL path: http://www.hannaservice.si/en/hanna-blog/344-new-edgeblu-bluetooth-smart-ph-electrode-and-meter (2016-04-28)
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  • How to Measure Acidity in Natural Water - Hanna Instruments Slovenija
    of skin and hair which ideally falls between pH 3 and 5 and pH 4 and 5 respectively thereby affecting their physical and chemical makeup Read more How to Measure Acidity in Natural Water Twitter Share on Tumblr Published 08 July 2015 The worldwide human population has increased from approximately 2 5 billion to over 7 billion people in the last 75 years Not only that population has increased it has also increased the use of natural resources High acidity level is important indication of water pollution Anthropogenic human who is producing the waste is significantly impacting our natural environment Water presents one of the most vital resources that humans require in order to live On the other side pollution of water is one of the most common anthropogenic effects on the environment High acidity leve l is important indication of water pollution Water bodies all around the world consist of varying levels of acidity due to natural factors such as landscape position and slope watershed size geology and soil composition as well as anthropogenic pollution The cause of anthropogenic pollution Acidity the buffering capacity of a substance to resist a change in pH when reacted with a strong base is determined by titration with sodium hydroxide NaOH and commonly expressed as mg L or meq L calcium carbonate CaCO₃ Acidity of water originates from various sources weak organic acids such as dissolved CO₂ as carbonic acid acetic acid and tannic acid strong mineral acid such as sulfuric and hydrochloric acids metal salts from iron aluminum and manganese High levels of strong mineral acids are indicative of anthropogenic pollution When atmospheric pollutants from the burning of fossil fuels such as sulfur dioxide SO₂ and nitrogen oxides NOx are emitted into the atmosphere they combine with water and ozone to become

    Original URL path: http://www.hannaservice.si/en/hanna-blog/343-how-to-measure-acidity-in-natural-water (2016-04-28)
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  • Tips for Measuring the pH of Mash in the Brewing Process - Hanna Instruments Slovenija
    of a shampoo will alter the natural pH of skin and hair which ideally falls between pH 3 and 5 and pH 4 and 5 respectively thereby affecting their physical and chemical makeup Read more Tips for Measuring the pH of Mash in the Brewing Process Twitter Share on Tumblr Published 06 July 2015 Are you a brewer and you want to monitor the pH in the water mash wort and finished beer Do you know the importance and awareness of the temperature compensation and pH in the brewing process Mashing process and its importance Lately in the past 30 years the number of homebrewers and microbreweries has grown tremendously We can see the interest in thedifferent types of beer in the choices that are making the consumers Brewers use mostly a malt extract to prepare boiled wort before starting the fermentation process with yeast The malt extract is prepared from natural grains such as wheat barley rice More experienced or adventurous beer makers prefer to make their own malt extract Malt consist from the crushed grains that have been allowed to begin to germinate and dried in a kilt Mashing is the process where the malt is extracted by steeping in water at 60 to 70 C 140 to 158 F This is where the alpha and beta amylase enzymes are activated converting the malted grains into fermentable sugars Throughout the mash process the pH should be periodically balanced The pH of mach is a basic parameter to screen it must be kept up between pH 5 2 and 5 6 for ideal enzyme activity As the malted grains are separated natural acids are shaped which can lower the pH of the mash This can bring about inadequate transformation of starch to sugar as amylase activity decreases at a

    Original URL path: http://www.hannaservice.si/en/hanna-blog/340-tips-for-measuring-the-ph-of-mash-in-the-brewing-process (2016-04-28)
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  • Effects of Calcium & Vitamin D in Dietary Supplements - Hanna Instruments Slovenija
    pH 3 and 5 and pH 4 and 5 respectively thereby affecting their physical and chemical makeup Read more Effects of Calcium Vitamin D in Dietary Supplements Twitter Share on Tumblr Published 03 July 2015 Calcium in general has the important role in our health and is the most abundant mineral in our bodies Calcium helps maintaining healthy teeth and bones it regulates muscle contraction aids in blood clotting and facilitates the release of hormones and enzymes The human body uses numerous regulatory systems to ensure sufficient calcium is supplied where it is needed It is important to provide our bodies with enough calcium for these regulatory systems to function properly through food consumption and sometimes through the use of supplements Low calcium intake can lead to hypocalcemia The amount of calcium our body needs depends on age and gender The National Institutes of Health has set guidelines for the recommended daily allowance RDA of calcium The RDA is the daily intake level required to meet the nutrient requirements of 98 of people For most adult men and women 1 000 milligrams of calcium a day is sufficient Low calcium intake can lead to hypocalcemia or low calcium in the blood Symptoms of hypocalcemia muscle cramping confusion low bone density Conversely excess calcium intake can lead to kidney stones impaired iron absorption and calcium buildup in the blood vessels Vitamin D is required to promote adequate absorption of calcium Without it children can develop rickets soft bones also known as osteomalacia in adults Low vitamin D can be treated with supplements vitamin D rich foods and sun exposure The power of Calcium A steady diet containing adequate calcium is a popular way to combat osteoporosis brittle bone disease later in life Many dairy foods like yogurt milk and cheese are

    Original URL path: http://www.hannaservice.si/en/hanna-blog/339-effects-of-calcium-vitamin-d-in-dietary-supplements (2016-04-28)
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  • Importance of Using Biochemical Oxygen Demand in Wastewater Treatments - Hanna Instruments Slovenija
    of wastewater treatment is to remove organic matter prior to being released into a body of water Organic substances refer to carbon based molecules that enter the wastewater stream in the form of fecal matter soaps and detergents fats greases oils and food particles If organic matter is not sufficiently removed from wastewater before it is released back into the environment human and animal populations would be subject to harmful pathogens and disease Bacteria that are naturally present in water will consume organic contaminants but consumption is dependent on the water s dissolved oxygen concentration To ensure the organic matter is not only sufficiently but also efficiently broken down wastewater treatment plants utilize oxygen pumps in their aeration tanks to provide an adequate amount of dissolved oxygen for decomposition Effluent water with a high BOD can negatively impact the natural body of water Biochemical oxygen demand commonly referred to as BOD is an empirical measurement of the oxygen required by bacteria to decompose organic matter Thus the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant can be determined by measuring the BOD concentration By comparing the dissolved oxygen concentrations in sewage influent versus effluent treatment plants can accurately gauge how much organic matter is being removed during the treatment process Additionally effluent water with a high BOD can negatively impact the natural body of water where it is discharged because dissolved oxygen is limiting in aquatic environments An input of effluent water rich in organic matter will result in consumption of this limited DO to break down that organic matter This will result in less available DO for aquatic organisms and lead to degradation of the aquatic ecosystem Importance of BOD measurments Even as one of the most commonly measured constituents of wastewater BOD tests commonly referred to as BOD5 tests due

    Original URL path: http://www.hannaservice.si/en/hanna-blog/337-importance-of-using-biochemical-oxygen-demand-in-wastewater-treatments (2016-04-28)
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  • How to Measure Ozone in Waste-Water Treatment Process - Hanna Instruments Slovenija
    of how to measure ozone in waste water treatment process Despite the fact that most ordinarily connected with the ozone layer ozone O₃ is an effective oxidizer and consequently a compelling disinfectant In Earth s stratosphere ozone retains harmful light radiation from the sun preventing damage to Earth Its vicinity was initially found in 1840 however it wasn t until 50 years after the fact that its sanitizing forces were investigated and outfit In 1893 ozone was initially utilized as a part of a full scale application for drinking water treatment in the Netherlands All through the 1900s the utilization of ozone spread all through the rest of Europe and into the United States where it is still utilized today When pathogens have been uprooted amid waste water purification any lingering disinfectant must be evacuated preceding release into a natural water body For a few disinfectants this requires the expansion of additional chemicals For instance residual chlorine may be uprooted by adding sodium bisulfite to the water Then again the natural instability of ozone permits it to separate to oxygen without the requirement for extra chemicals making it perfect for waste water treatment The absence of harmful repercussions high effectiveness and uncommon evacuation of awful scents are among the numerous reasons waste water plants consolidate ozone cleansing frameworks In Europe ozone is an exceptionally famous disinfectant utilized as a part of waste water second just to chlorine In addition to waste water treatment plants ozone has been used in different businesses including air filtration clothing sanitation and food preservation Because of its insecurity ozone is produced on location at the waste water treatment plant and has a lifespan of just 20 to 90 minutes and soon thereafter it returns back to oxygen The two most prevalent techniques for ozone era

    Original URL path: http://www.hannaservice.si/en/hanna-blog/317-how-to-measure-ozone-in-waste-water-treatment-process (2016-04-28)
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  • How to Monitor Temperature & Nitrate in Water Storage Reservoirs - Hanna Instruments Slovenija
    of high demand and emergency situations and they also maintain pressure in the distribution system During periods of increased demand such as early morning and late afternoon or evening the water leaves the storage reservoir and enters the water mains During periods of decreased demand finished water leaves the treatment plant and enters the storage reservoir to be contained until needed The cooler and warmer waters are separated by a thermocline While in storage the finished water is susceptible to contamination During extended periods of low turnover i e seasonal changes in water requirements or if there is insufficient mixing within the storage reservoir stratification can occur Stratification happens when water in the storage reservoir divides into layers due to temperature differences Finished water from the treatment plant enters the storage reservoir at the bottom of the tank and is cooler in temperature than the water already residing in the storage tank This cooler denser water remains on the bottom portion of the tank while the warmer less dense water resides near the surface The cooler and warmer waters are separated by a thermocline a thin but distinct layer that inhibits natural mixing between the two layers The warm moist environment of the upper layer invites microbial growth producing a layer of biofilm on the walls of the storage reservoir This growth can result in non homogeneous disinfectant residual within the storage reservoir from the increase in bacteria in the upper layers When certain disinfecting such as chlorine compounds react with these organic biofilms harmful disinfection by products are produced including total trihalomethanes TTHMs and haloacetic acids HAA5s Furthermore when chloramine disinfectants a combination of chlorine and ammonia react with these biofilms ammonia is released into the system which can then lead to nitrification During nitrification ammonia is oxidized to

    Original URL path: http://www.hannaservice.si/en/hanna-blog/333-how-to-monitor-temperature-nitrate-in-water-storage-reservoirs (2016-04-28)
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