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  • How Can Conductivity Measurement Affect the Yogurt Production - Hanna Instruments Slovenija
    Yogurt Production Twitter Share on Tumblr Published 04 August 2015 Yogurt one of the most popular types of dairy products is nowadays consumed worldwide Yogurt is produced with milk cream or powdered milk products The desired fat content depends on how the finished product is going to look like The regular intake of dairy products has a positive health results such as strengthening bone health encouraging proper digestion reducing the risk of certain infections Pasteurization and homogenization as the effective processes Sabilizers or sweeteners are additional ingredients and are mixed in with the milk products and heated for pasteurization For effective pasteurization the heating process must be performed at temperatures near 93 C for a time period ranging from 30 seconds to 30 minutes Because of the differences in fat content of milk and cream the ingredients will naturally separate after the pasteurization process to prevent this the mixture is homogenized Homogenization is the process which helps destroying the fat globules by crushing them and allowing even distribution of the fat particles so the two liquid phases merge The fermentation process of yogurt Fermentation is the next step in yogurt production where the designated tanks are heated to 45 C Live bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus are added to the mixture during the fermentation stage These bacteria convert the sugar that is naturally present in the milk or any other added sweeteners into lactic acid The thickening of the yogurt and the tart flavor are caused by the lactic acid The fermentation process usually takes between 6 and 20 hours but that is something that depends on the type of yogurt being produced Electrolytic conductivity during the fermentation process Electrolytic conductivity EC is the measurement of a substances ability to carry an electrical current Dissolved salts are the main

    Original URL path: http://www.hannaservice.si/en/hanna-blog/361-how-can-conductivity-measurement-affect-the-yogurt-production (2016-04-28)
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  • Importance of Agriculture in Kenya - Hanna Instruments Slovenija
    most important economic activities in Kenya and represents more than 24 percent of gross domestic product About 70 percent of production comes from small farmers who have on average two hectares of land depending on the region Small farmers in Kenya The main problem of agriculture in Kenya is the lack of water The lack of rain and the dry ground are not conducive for growing vegetables that require a high water supply Vegetables that grow there have an intense flavour due to the many hours of exposure to the sun Small farmers are the main providers of food grains and several cash crops in Kenya 90 percent of the corn comes from the small farms 115 000 of the small farmers with an average plot of 0 30 hectares produce 28 000 tons of tea The small farming sector in Kenya has 1 7 million smallholders where half of them have less than 1 hectare According to a survey of 1 5 million rural small farmers only about 322 000 used some of the fertiliz ation systems Kenyans new and more productive cabbage varieties Approximately 90 percent of the households in Kenya grow vegetables especially cabbage In an attempt to improve the food security and alleviate the hunger Kenyans now enjoy new cabbage varieties that are more productive and deal better with the unpredictable climate changes New varieties of cabbage are also in line with the Kenyan government program to eliminate hunger This plan supports initiatives for agricultural development in poor rural areas where about 90 percent of the population lives with less than one dollar per day Farmers from center of the country are supporting the innovation of the increased production of cabbage Agriculture emissions and the contribution to the climate changes While much of the public s attention on climate change focuses on the carbon dioxide there are two other greenhouse gases GHGs nitrous oxide and methane which form the big part of the agriculture emissions and contribute to the climate changes Nitrous oxide is released when nitrogen fertilizer or organic materials are transformed by microbial processes in the ground Nitrous oxide is almost 300 times more powerful than carbon dioxide in terms of its global warming potential Methane is released when organic material is decomposed under the anaerobic conditions for example in a flooded fields and is 25 times more powerful than carbon dioxide The research to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide and methane from agriculture has examined how the applications of fertilizer and manure soil moisture and tillage affect the production and release of these greenhouse gases Until now most of the researches have examined these management practices separately In practice there is the interaction between fertilization water management tillage and determining emissions The key benefits of the fertigation system Some of the fertilizer s advantages are accurate control of the acidity and of the injection of fertilizer i t continuously measures the actual conductivity EC and pH of the flow through and precisely adjusts

    Original URL path: http://www.hannaservice.si/en/hanna-blog/359-importance-of-agriculture-in-kenya (2016-04-28)
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  • HANNA BLOG - Hanna Instruments Slovenija
    pH in shampoo Published 18 December 2015 Shampoo is a hair care product used for removal of dirt dandruff skin particles oils and other contaminated particles As the scientists behind hair care progressed manufacturers synthesized chemical additives for use in shampoo as fragrance foaming agents and colored dyes Shampoo is now created and structured towards various hair types as well as to achieve a certain end result such as the reduction of dandruff or greasy hair Both the synthetic and natural ingredients used in a shampoo dictate the pH of that particular product The pH of a shampoo will alter the natural pH of skin and hair which ideally falls between pH 3 and 5 and pH 4 and 5 respectively thereby affecting their physical and chemical makeup Read more Measuring pH in shampoo How to maintain your testers Published 28 October 2015 Hanna Instruments understands that not everyone is an industry professional and not everyone understands what the proper care for a pH EC or ORP tester is In this post we discuss some tricks related to using and caring for your testers Read more How to maintain your testers Top 5 Tips to Consider When Calibrating Your pH Meter Published 24 September 2015 Reliable pH measurements are essential to virtually any process or industry from soil to wastewater Measuring pH plays a crucial role in determining the quality of water soil and more Read more Top 5 Tips to Consider When Calibrating Your pH Meter Slovenian Chemical Days 2015 Published 28 September 2015 Company Hanna Service d o o has also this year attended Slovenian chemical days in Ljubljana which took a place between September 24 to 25 2015 at the Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology Read more Slovenian Chemical Days 2015 Ocean Acidification Absorption of Carbon

    Original URL path: http://www.hannaservice.si/en/hanna-blog?limitstart=0 (2016-04-28)
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  • How to Monitor Water Hardness with Clean-in-place Systems - Hanna Instruments Slovenija
    The pH of a shampoo will alter the natural pH of skin and hair which ideally falls between pH 3 and 5 and pH 4 and 5 respectively thereby affecting their physical and chemical makeup Read more How to Monitor Water Hardness with Clean in place Systems Twitter Share on Tumblr Published 29 June 2015 Foodborne illness is one of the most common public health issues in the United States with approximately 76 million food related illnesses occurring each year In an effort to minimize foodborne illness the United States Public Health Service USPHS closely inspects and regulates the country s food production As a result cleanliness is among the primary directives of any food processing plant to ensure compliance with the USPHS CIP systems allow production processes to run continuously Large food processing plants utilize clean in place CIP systems which permit the cleaning of process machinery without having to completely disassemble the equipment Unlike conventional cleaning systems where production must be halted for disassembly cleaning and reassembly CIP systems allow production processes to run continuously An additional benefit to CIP systems is lower production costs as there is no need for manual intervention However since there is minimal human involvement both water and chemicals used for the CIP process must be monitored to ensure that they are suitable for cleaning purposes Water hardness is caused by dissolved salt ions predominantly calcium and magnesium Hardness in water poses a significant issue in CIP systems as it can interfere with the effectiveness of sanitizers and caustic detergents Water hardness also contributes to scale buildup in both the CIP equipment and process equipment Scaling greatly reduces cleaning efficiency and consequently increases the costs of operation Water must be treated with a softener such as phosphate or EDTA As a result the

    Original URL path: http://www.hannaservice.si/en/hanna-blog/335-how-to-monitor-water-hardness-with-clean-in-place-systems (2016-04-28)
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  • Monitoring the Color of Drinking Water in Africa - Hanna Instruments Slovenija
    at any time two out of every thousand people three quarters of them are under five years old will suffer from the disease because of the consumption of contaminated water or poor quality Diarrhea is the usual result of unsafe drinking water and is a major cause of infant mortality by causing dehydration and accentuate the effects of chronic malnutrition This scenario coupled with the onset of opportunistic infections is behind most of the scandalous numbers of registered infant mortality in many developing countries To get an idea of the magnitude of the problem just in Ethiopia where the infant mortality under five years is 16 4 Primary drinking water contaminants Primary drinking water contaminants are regulated based on established maximum contaminant levels MCLs if a primary drinking water contaminant is below the maximum concentration level no hazards to human health will occur The EPA has also established National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations NSDWRs that set non mandatory water quality standards for 15 drinking water contaminants These secondary maximum contaminant levels SMCLs are not enforced by the EPA but are recommended guidelines to assist public water systems in managing their drinking water for aesthetic considerations These types of contaminants are not considered a risk to human health but if the public perceives their drinking water as tainted consumers may stop using the public water system Secondary drinking water contaminants are categorized under three conditions those that have an aesthetic effect on the water such as taste odor or color those that have a cosmetic effect on consumers such as skin or tooth discoloration and those that have a technical effect on water systems such as corrosion staining and reduced efficiency The presence of dissolved organic material in water The presence of dissolved organic material such as tannins and inorganic contaminants

    Original URL path: http://www.hannaservice.si/en/hanna-blog/357-monitoring-the-color-of-drinking-water-in-africa (2016-04-28)
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  • How to Determine the Alkalinity of Cocoa Ash - Hanna Instruments Slovenija
    is known in many different forms all over the world and is made from cocoa beans Cocoa was firstly used in South America by the Mayans and later they brought it to Spain where its popularity grew In very short time chocolate houses started opening throughout Europe followed by the production of confections from cocoa beans Today more than 3 million tons of cocoa beans are consumed annually with 90 being produced on small farms Consumption of cocoa beans varies from chocolate cake to hot chocolate and includes a myriad of treats enjoyed around the globe The conditions and process for creating cocoa products Along the equator where is consistently warm and where is the humid climate we can found the Cocoa trees which produce pods all year round However there are only two large harvests each year During harvest the pods are handpicked opened and emptied of the pulp and seeds The seeds are raked into piles or placed into wooden boxes and left to ferment for a period of 9 days Following the fermentation stage the seeds are dried packed into burlap sacks and sent to manufacturing plants At the manufacturing plant the seeds are crushed and separated from the husks after which they are referred to as nibs Nibs are then ground into a thick paste called chocolate liquor which is used to create cocoa powder cocoa butter and unsweetened chocolate There are a lot of analyses that can be performed in order to determine the quality of raw cocoa powder The ash content of cocoa powder can provide valuable insight on what region the cocoa came from the quality of cocoa the level of adulteration and amount of minerals present Ash content and the ashing process of cocoa The ash content of cocoa powder typically ranges

    Original URL path: http://www.hannaservice.si/en/hanna-blog/355-how-to-determine-the-alkalinity-of-cocoa-ash (2016-04-28)
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  • How to determine tomato maturity and the optimal pH value - Hanna Instruments Slovenija
    Share on Tumblr Published 16 July 2015 Are you a tomato grower or a sauce processor and want to maximize the efficiency of your tomato ripening process and measure the pH of your tomato sauces to ensure the proper pH for maximizing the shelf life here is the article you might find interesting Waiting for the ripen tomatoes can be a very frustrating process for gardeners as the time when this happens depends on fluctuations in the climate and other conditions Tomatoes go through various stages to mature and the time they are harvested depends on the strategy used by the gardener These fruits can be harvested early and left to mature under cover or can be left to fully ripen on the plant as long as they are protected from the pests Temperature humidity light levels and other environmental conditions can affect on the final ripening process Ensure the high quality of your processed food Ripened tomatoes are used for making the variety of dishes and processed foods such as pizza sauce salsa and ketchup You should always ensure that the quality of these processed foods is high by taking the important note about the quality of the raw materials What this means is that the tomatoes should be at the desired maturity before they are used to make processed goods Determine the maturity and the optimal pH value Color presents one way to determine ripeness but this can be inaccurate due to the color subjectiveness The color of tomatoes can also vary from the breed of tomato By measuring the pH of the tomato you can use less subjective and more accurate method to determine tomato maturity Optimal pH for a perfectly ripe tomato is around 4 6 Take notice that in processed food you keep the pH

    Original URL path: http://www.hannaservice.si/en/hanna-blog/353-how-to-determine-tomato-maturity-and-the-optimal-ph-value (2016-04-28)
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  • How Can pH in Soils and Nutrient Solutions effect the Plant Growth - Hanna Instruments Slovenija
    Read more How Can pH in Soils and Nutrient Solutions effect the Plant Growth Twitter Share on Tumblr Published 14 July 2015 Are you commercial gardener or just a hobbyist who wants to monitor the nutrient solution that is distributed to your plants through a drip irrigation system and periodically check soil pH and TDS values by making a soil slurry The characteristics of soil play an important role in the general health of a plant If you are commercial gardener or hobbyist the measurement of soil pH can help you better understand the availability of nutrients permeability of the soil the types of plants that can be grown Importance of Alkaline and Acidic soils The pH of soil depends on many environmental factors Alkaline soils are often found in areas that are rich in limestone and are characterized by the accumulation of soluble salts and carbonates Acidic soils are characterized by the presence of free hydrogen and aluminum ions and may be caused by acid rain fertilizer application or decomposing organic matter Most natural soils are depending on the geology of the area and have a pH ranging from pH 4 0 8 0 What is the optimum value for nutrient uptake The availability of macronutrients and micronutrients is one of the key factors in plant growth The availability of both macro and micronutrients is directly related to pH The pH soil and nutrient solutions will determine the solubility of the nutrients Soils that have a pH of 4 0 to 5 0 are considered to be strongly acidic within this acidic range the solubility of minerals such as aluminum iron and manganese increases and can become toxic to plants Soils that have a pH greater than pH 8 0 or 9 0 are considered to be strongly alkaline

    Original URL path: http://www.hannaservice.si/en/hanna-blog/351-how-can-ph-in-soils-and-nutrient-solutions-effect-the-plant-growth (2016-04-28)
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